Cyber security is the practice of protecting computer systems from attacks. There are many different types of cybersecurity, including physical defence, technical defence and non-technical defences. A business could have a well thought out plan in place to defend their data from cybercriminals but if they do not follow those plans it can be difficult to protect against an attack. Cybercrime has grown rapidly in recent years and with the increased use of technology, so has the need for security measures. The digital technology needed to trade today is very different from what it used to be.
Cyber Security is an important part of any business. The risk that cyber attacks pose to businesses, governments, and individuals is very real. Cyber security is the protection of information networks against intentional misuse. There are three main types of cyber-threats: denial-of-service (DoS), espionage, and sabotage.
Denial-of-service can be used to shut down or slow down a network by flooding it with traffic. This attack was first seen in commercial services like eBay’s PayPal system during the 2000 Christmas season when hackers overloaded their servers with fake orders to buy everything from candy to computers. Denial-of-service was first officially recognized as a major threat in a 1999 National Security Agency report on cyber terrorism and is now considered one of the largest growing threats to Internet security.
The Internet of Things
The Internet of Things is a network that connects objects to the internet. It has been predicted that by 2020 there will be 10 billion connected devices. Although the IoT is not new, it is becoming more prevalent as technologies become easier and cheaper to use.
As technology advances, so does the ability for people to connect with each other in ways they have never been able to before. The IoT allows people to monitor their health conditions, adjust their living spaces remotely, and provide remote assistance without ever having to leave home or travel across town. However, the security of this technology also presents a great conflict. Connected devices such as appliances and cars can be hacked by bad actors which could cause harm to people if they open doors while driving or plugin unsecured appliances inside their homes.
The Data Protection Act 1998 requires companies to take appropriate technical and organisational measures against unauthorized processing of personal data. So, how do companies protect sensitive information? The UK’s Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) suggests that many UK organizations implement ‘privacy by design. This means that they must consider data protection issues during the product development process.
Computer hacking is the process of attempting to gain unauthorized access to a computer system or network, often for personal entertainment. Hackers can be divided into two groups: black hat and white hat. Black hats break computer security to exploit systems and networks, while white hats do so in order to identify and fix vulnerabilities.
Cyberwarfare is a form of conflict in which the weapons, tactics, and strategies are primarily focused on causing damage or destruction to target computer systems. It can be both physical or non-physical. Cyberwarfare military strategy is typically used when the opponent has assured asymmetric advantage. These are often achieved through computer network attack (CNA) methods to achieve an operational goal while preserving their force’s effectiveness in traditional warfighting domains.
The term “social engineering” refers to the act of manipulating people into giving up their information, seeking assistance, or providing passwords by any means possible. This can include phishing emails, spoofing emails, physical contact (e.g., in the form of a handshake), and phone calls. The goal is usually to gain access to otherwise protected resources like money, computer systems, or customer data.
Ransomware is a type of malware that extorts money from victims through the use of computer lock screens or encryption. This form of extortion occurs when hackers gain access to a victim’s system and encrypt their files, demanding payment in order to have them decrypted. Once infected, ransomware will alter the opening screen on the victim’s computer so it appears they are locked out of their own system with an error message stating that their files have been encrypted and are no longer accessible without paying a ransom.
The ransom ranges from $100 to $500, with most often being around $300. Sometime after the victim has paid, their files are then unlocked and can be accessed either normally or through “decryptor” programs that work on all versions of Windows operating systems.
A cryptographic algorithm is a method for encrypting messages in such a way that only the intended recipient can read them. Cryptography is used to secure communications and information of many types, and also for digital signatures and data integrity checks. It is sometimes called “secret writing.”
There are six fundamental categories of algorithms: symmetric-key algorithms (messages encrypted with the same key), public-key encryption (messages encrypted with one key but decrypted with another), hash functions, message authentication codes (MACs), digital signature schemes, and hash-based message authentication code schemes.
The purpose of encryption is to allow the secrecy of data. It works by translating information to a string of text or symbols, called “ciphertext,” which is unreadable to anyone except those with the key that translates it back into plaintext/readable information. When a ciphertext can be decrypted with a key, it is said to have been encrypted by that algorithm. There are multiple ways in which this process might occur:
There are two primary methods for encrypting data: substitution and transposition. Substitution involves replacing letters within a message or series of messages with other letters according to a table of substitutions. Transposition involves moving the letters about in a message without altering their meaning, other than jeopardizing the security by making it difficult for them to be rearranged back into their original order.
Malware and Viruses
Malware is a general term for computer software that performs any number of malicious actions on a computer, including keylogging, tracking activities, stealing personal data and credit card information. Malware can be installed when someone clicks on an email attachment or when the user visits a website with malware embedded in it. Different types of malware include viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware and adware.